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Interaction in Surround Video: The Effect of Auditory Feedback on Enjoyment

Konferenzbeitrag
Vosmeer, M., Roth, C., & Schouten, B.
Interactive Storytelling Conference Proceedings (ICIDS), 2015

This study investigates whether an interactive surround video is perceived as more enjoyable when there is some auditory feedback on interactive moments. We constructed a questionnaire that measured presence, effectance, autonomy, flow, enjoyment, system usability, user satisfaction and identification, filled in by two groups of respondents who had either watched an interactive movie on Oculus Rift with feedback sounds, or a version without. Our results show that users rated presence significantly lower in the feedback condition. We rejected our hypothesis, that auditory feedback would increase the perception of effectance.

Breaching Interactive Storytelling's Implicit Agreement: A Content Analysis of Façade User Behaviors

Konferenzbeitrag
Roth, C., & Vermeulen, I.
Interactive Storytelling Conference Proceedings (ICIDS), 2013

Using both manual and automatic content analysis we analyzed 100 collected screen plays of 50 users of the IS system Façade, coding the extent to which users stayed “in character”. Comparing this measure for first and second exposure to Façade revealed that users stay significantly less in character during second exposure. Further, related to a set of independently collected user experience measures we found staying in character to negatively influence users’ affective responses. The results confirm the notion that the more Façade users keep to their assigned role, the easier they become dissatisfied with the system’s performance. As a result, users start exploring the system by acting “out of character”.

Real Story Interaction: The Role of Global Agency in Interactive Storytelling

Konferenzbeitrag
Roth, C., & Vermeulen, I.
Entertainment Computing Proceedings (ICEC), 2012

Interactive Storytelling (IS) is a promising new entertainment technology synthesizing pre-authored narrative with dynamic user interaction. Research on user experiences in IS is sparse. The current experiment tested whether different player expectations regarding the impact of their actions yield different user experiences by framing user agency as „local“ vs. „global“ in the introduction to the story. Local agency influences character behavior and story events, whereas global agency influences story development and outcomes. A between-subject design involved N=46 participants playing the interactive story „Dinner Date“. Findings suggest that experiential qualities (autonomy, flow, curiosity) reached higher levels when players believed to have an impact on the story outcome (global agency). Enjoyment did not differ between conditions. Systematic gender differences in user experiences are discussed.

Cognitive Processes Involved in Video Game Identification

Konferenzbeitrag
Blake, C., Hefner, D., Roth, C., Klimmt, C., & Vorderer, P.
Entertainment Computing Proceedings (ICEC), 2012

Identifying with video game characters is one potentially important process in game enjoyment. Based on a theoretical model of video game identification as transformed self-perception, cognitive processes in video game identification were explored. An experiment with N = 60 male players revealed that increased cognitive accessibility of character-related concepts should be considered as element of the identification process. Moreover, shifts in players’ self-perceptions were observed so that players of a shooter video game (Call of Duty 2 TM) described themselves as less gentle and more soldier-like than a control group. Overall, the study suggests that shifts in self-related cognition occur as part of the gaming experience. Implications for future research on game enjoyment and long-term game effects are discussed.

The Experience of Interactive Storytelling: Comparing Fahrenheit with Façade

Konferenzbeitrag
Roth, C., Klimmt, C., Vermeulen, I. E., & Vorderer, P.
Entertainment Computing Proceedings (ICEC), 2011

At the intersection of multimedia, artificial intelligence, and gaming technology, new visions of future entertainment media arise that approximate the “Holodeck” ® idea of interactive storytelling. We report exploratory experiments on the user experience in a ‘classic‘, foundational application of interactive storytelling, “Façade” (Mateas & Stern, 2002), and compare results with an identical experiment carried out with users of the adventure game “Fahrenheit”. A total of N = 148 participants used one of the systems interactively or watched a pre-recorded video sequence of the application without interactive involvement. Using a broad range of entertainment-related measures, the experience of Interactive Storytelling was found to depend strongly on interactivity (mostly in “Façade”) and to differ substantially across the systems, with “Façade” achieving a stronger connection between interactive use and the resulting profile of entertainment experiences.

The Audience Embedded in the Narrative: An Experiment in Interactive Storytelling

Konferenzbeitrag
Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., Roth, C., & Vermeulen, I.
International Association for Media and Communication Research Proceedings (IAMCR), 2011

Research on audience experiences and responses to media entertainment has made remarkable progress over the past decade. Innovations in media content and technology continue to rise new challenges to entertainment studies, both in theoretical and empirical dimensions.

One ‘hot’ innovation in entertainment technology is the co-evolution of digital games, artificial intelligence, and other facets of advanced computer systems into “Interactive Storytelling” (Cavazza, Lugrin, Pizzi & Charles, 2007). The synthesis of elaborated story, multimedia presentation and rich interactivity is envisioned to result in a radically new audience experience in which users make meaningful decisions on the progress of the narrative and thus co-narrate the story. To use such an “Interactive Story” may be compared to the experience of ‘being’ in a novel’s word, of especially immersive video gaming or of participating in a virtual improvisation theatre.

The present research aims to theorized and examine the audience’s entertainment experience in ‘Interactive Stories’ before this new type of media technology enters mass markets. Based on existing models of media entertainment, the video game experience in particular (Vorderer & Bryant, 2006), an experiment was conducted with a widely recognized prototype of Interactive Storytelling, “Façade” (Dow et al., 2007). This system involves users in a dialogue with two autonomous characters whose intimate relationship is going through a crisis, which results in interesting affective dynamics.

The study (N = 68 students, 44 females) focused on the importance of interactivity for the story experience. Therefore, participants were randomly assigned to either use “Façade” interactively or merely watch a prerecorded video of another person’s interaction with the system. Interactivity was thus manipulated experimentally (on / off). After 15 minutes of exposure, participants completed a questionnaire and rated their experience on various dimensions relevant to entertainment, including presence, suspense, and enjoyment.

Results show that audience experiences do not differ between interactive and non-interactive use of the story on very many dimensions. Most importantly, no significant group differences emerged for key dimensions such as curiosity and suspense. However, users displayed more overall enjoyment in the interactive condition (p = .07), more positive and less negative affect than users in the non-interactive condition (p’s < .05). Two experiential processes seem to drive this difference in emotional response, namely a higher degree of presence and of efficacy experience (effectance) that come along with interactive story exposure (p’s < .01).

Findings suggest that Interactive Storytelling combines known aspects of narrative experiences (such as suspense) with action-based audience responses (effectance and presence). In this sense, Interactive Storytelling is indeed distinct from prior types of media entertainment, also from an audience perspective. On the other hand, the fact that the interactive “Façade” experience displays substantial similarities with the non-interactive version also suggests that interactive stories are no ‘radically’ new type of entertainment. Implications for entertainment theory and future trends of the entertainment industry need to be considered accordingly.

Measuring User Responses to Interactive Stories: Towards a Standardized Assessment Tool

Konferenzbeitrag
Vermeulen, I. E., Roth, C., Vorderer, P., & Klimmt, C.
Interactive Storytelling Conference Proceedings (ICIDS), 2010

With the increasing number of prototypes and market applications of interactive storytelling, the understanding and optimization
of how end users respond to computer-mediated interactive narratives is of growing importance. Based on a conceptual model
of user experiences in interactive storytelling, a measurement instrument for empirical user-based research was developed.
We report findings from an initial test of the self-report scales that was conducted with N = 80 players of the adventure game
”Fahrenheit”. Interactivity was manipulated experimentally in order to validate the measures. Results suggest that the scales
will be useful for comparing user responses to ‘real’ interactive storytelling systems.

Measuring the User Experience in Narrative-Rich Games: Towards a Concept-based Assessment for Interactive Stories

Konferenzbeitrag
Roth, C., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., & Vermeulen, I.
Entertainment Interfaces Proceedings (HCI), 2010

With the increasing number of prototypes and market applications of interactive storytelling, the understanding and optimization
of how end users respond to computer-mediated interactive narratives is of growing importance. Based on a conceptual model
of user experiences in interactive storytelling, a measurement instrument for empirical user-based research was developed.
We report findings from an initial test of the self-report scales that was conducted with N = 80 players of the adventure game
”Fahrenheit”. Interactivity was manipulated experimentally in order to validate the measures. Results suggest that the scales
will be useful for comparing user responses to ‘real’ interactive storytelling systems

The Motivational Appeal of Interactive Storytelling: Towards a Dimensional Model of the User Experience

Konferenzbeitrag
Roth, C., Vorderer, P., & Klimmt, C.
Interactive Storytelling Conference Proceedings (ICIDS), 2009

A conceptual account to the quality of the user experience that interactive storytelling intends to facilitate is introduced.
Building on social-scientific research from ‘old’ entertainment media, the experiential qualities of curiosity, suspense, aesthetic
pleasantness, self-enhancement, and optimal task engagement (“flow”) are proposed as key elements of a theory of user experience
in interactive storytelling. Perspectives for the evolution of the model, research and application are briefly discussed.

Player Performance, Satisfaction, and Video Game Enjoyment

Konferenzbeitrag
Klimmt, C., Blake, C., Hefner, D., Vorderer, P., & Roth, C.
Entertainment Computing Proceedings (ICEC), 2009

An experiment (N = 74) was conducted to investigate the impact of game difficulty and player performance on game enjoyment. Participants played
a First Person Shooter game with systematically varied levels of difficulty. Satisfaction with performance and game enjoyment were assessed after playing. Results are not fully in line with predictions derived from flow and attribution theory and suggest players to (1) change their view on their own performance with its implications for enjoyment with increasing game experience and (2) to switch strategically between different sources of fun, thus maintaining a (somewhat) positive experience even when performance-based enjoyment is low.